Energy Regulation

“Public service obligations” is a term used in Article 106 of the TFEU that has given rise to many critical debates. In the energy sector it relates to the need of guaranteeing, through regulatory measures or requirements addressed to suppliers or transmission and distribution system operators, a minimum of standards in terms of consumer and

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There are many factors that influence and form the actual energy policy scene. First of all, galloping human population growth together with sustainable economic development have given rise to an increase in energy demand, which in turn causes an increase in energy prices (by 2035 electricity costs in the EU will be 50% higher than

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Legislation

Law 3468/2006“Generation of Electricity using Renewable Energy Sources and High-Efficiency Cogeneration of Electricity and Heat” (incorporation of Directive 2001/77/EC) Law 3734/2009a) harmonizes the Greek legislation with the Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal market and complements the legal framework, and b) adapts the tariffs for

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List of the European Regulatory Authorities For Energy Austria: Energie-Control Austria [E-Control: www.e-control.at] Belgium: Commission pour la Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz [CREG: www.creg.be] Bulgaria: State Energy & Water Regulatory Commission [SEWRC: www.dker.bg] Cyprus: Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority [CERA: www.cera.org.cy] Czech Republic: Energetický Regulační Úřad – Energy Regulatory Office [ERÚ – ERO: www.eru.cz] Denmark: Energitilsynet – Danish Energy Regulatory

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CO2 Rights

Directive 2003/87/EC established a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowances trading within the Community, amending Council Directive 96/61/EC and targeting the reduction of GHG emissions under the highest possible cost-effectiveness. The initial aforementioned Directive was amended by later acts, namely, Directive 2004/101/EC, Directive 2008/101/EC, Directive 2009/29/EC and Regulation (EC) No 219/2009.

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Pricing

The Council Directive 90/377/EEC regulated the Community procedures to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users. It was amended by the Council Decision 2007/394/EC. Commission Decision 2007/394/EC updates the annexes to take into account the implementation of Directive 2003/54/EC and Directive 2003/55/EC, on the opening of the electricity and gas

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Trading

Energy trading is framed by Regulation No 1227/2011 of 25 October 2011 on wholesale energy market integrity and transparency. The stringency of the rules aims to uncover abuses. National authorities in Member States are empowered to put in place penalties in order to battle market manipulation. The EU has focused on the effort to eliminate

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Networks

Energy networks in the European Union need to be upgraded and developed in order to meet the key challenge of contributing to the establishment of a secure, sustainable and competitive energy market. More specifically, the growing need for flexibility, energy efficiency and the accommodation of distributed generation and demand-side participation is interrelated to the development

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Renewable Energy Sources include wind, solar, hydro-electric and tidal power as well as geothermal energy and biomass. The increase of the share of RES in the European energy mix will enable the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and can subsequently contribute to the combat of climate change and the decrease of the EU’s dependency on

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